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Folk-custom of Zhijin

2015-03-23 18:17 | Author:gzzjd | Reading:amount |



Minority folk-custom
Zhijin has always been the cradle for reproducing many minorities in the south of China since ancient times. Miao nationality, Yi nationality and Chuanqing people, etc. are the earliest indigenous people inhabited in Zhijin. The cultural relics and historic sites discovered in Zhijin County like temples, tombs, steles and towers and post road indicate that Zhijin County had been governed by central government in Tang Dynasty at least. After construction and development in Song and Yuan Dynasty, Zhijin County had become one of the activity centers for national minorities in the southern region of central Guizhou in Ming and Qing Dynasty, and there are event of An Bangyan rebelling Ming Dynasty (1622-1629), ancient battleground relics such as Guoyongdi(1644) and tombs for thousands of dead soldiers (1644).
Currently, the minorities living in this geopark include: Miao nationality, Yi nationality, Bai nationality, Buyi nationality, Helao nationality, Shui nationality, Chuanqing people and so on, whose special, strong and rich cultural inheritance characterized the geopark well. There is Guanzhai Old Town, Xiahongyan nationality village, Flower Dance Festival of Miao nationality, Torch Festival of Yi nationality, Celebration of Wuxian Bodhisattva of Chuanqing,wax printing craft, and Zhijin marmite,etc.
 
Zhijin Marmite
Zhijin marmite includes more than 40 types, such as handle pot, round pot with two lugs, sand jar, tea canister, cauldron and hot pot. The manufacturing process is divided into three steps: raw materials preparation, pottery wheel blanking and non-kiln firing.
 
The articles of daily use and Production tools of the minorities living in Zhijindong cave geopark
 
The distribution sketch of the minorities living in Zhijin County
 
Jinlong Miao, Yi and Buyi Minorities Township
 
Chadian Buyi, Miao and Yi Minorities Township
 
Guanzhai Miao Minority Township
 
Taiping Miao and Yi Minorities Township
 
Miao nationality

Ziqiang Miao Minority Township
 
Bai nationality
 
Buyi nationality
 
Houzhai Miao Minority Township
 
Jichang Miao and Yi Minorities Township
 
Guanzhai Old Town
It is the ancient village of Yi nationality called “Naweiluomu”, which is an important village of ancient Yi nationality in Shuixi and also the place where the former residence of An Bangyan, deputy magistrate of Xuanwei Tongzhi, Guizhou province, in the later Ming Dynasty was built. It covers an area of 580,000 m2 which mainly focuses on the cultures of Yi nationality and Miao and Han nationalities. The building is made of stone base, wooden wall, black pillar, and grey tiles. The cow head and the calabash on the top of ridge, which are most appreciated by the people of Yi nationality, respectively mean Fu (fortune) and Lu (prosperity). The cow head made of wood is hung on the wall, and the pictures of calabash, pine, bamboo and crane which are most appreciated by Yi nationality are carved on the door.
 
Wax printing craft
Wax printing is an old and unique handcraft painting art in Miao nationality, China, which originated from Qin and Han Dynasties and  prevailed in Sui and Tang Dynasties (around 581-907 AD). Wax printing has been passed on from one generation to another with inexhaustible art resources. Since the dyeing and weaving technology came into being, wax printing had been regarded as the oldest handcraft, which is called a part of ancient civilization of Chinese nation.
 
Zhijin Waishumiao Wax Printing
As Waishumiao is located in a remote area with backward transportation system, Zhijin Waishumiao wax printing has conserved the essence of traditional wax printing, recorded primitive form of Chinese traditional wax printing craft, deposited rich cultural meaning, recorded the ancestors of Waishumiao people, held their worship and belief, and pin their hope for good life on wax printing during long process of development. Waishumiao wax printing has played an important role in their material life and spiritual life, which shows the true meaning of ancient wax printing technology and extending of modern art life to the whole world.

Manufacturing of Zhijin Waishumiao wax printing
The necessary materials and tools for wax printing manufactured by Zhijin Waishumiao people include cloth, knife for wax painting, wax, paraffin melter, indigo, and scouring agent, etc.; the manufacturing process is divided into five steps: cloth desizing, wax painting, colouring, dewaxing and after finishing; the wax printing product are made in blue and white, and the blue colors are all general blue (it is called “cyan” by Zhiwaimiao people), and the style of wax printing is simple and unsophisticated but elegant.
 
Socioeconomic profiles
Population and nationality
By the end of 2011, the total number of people within the geopark and its surrounding area was 2,007,600, of which, 1,116,500 lived in Zhijin County, and 891,100 lived in Qianxi County. People of several nationalities lived there, including Han nationality, Miao nationality, Yi nationality, Bai nationality, Buyi nationality, Gelao nationality, Shui nationality and Chuanqing people, etc., and the population of Han nationality dominates over there (accounting for above 50%). There were about 38,000 residents living in the geopark.
 
Economy
In 2012, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Zhijin County where the geopark is mainly located reached 8,935,000,000 Yuan, which increased by 16.9% over that of last year. In which, the value added of primary industry was 1,559,000,000 Yuan, which increased by 8% over that of last year; the value added of secondary industry was 3,712,000,000 Yuan, which increased by 19.60% over that of last year. Among primary industry, the value added of all industries was 2,904,000,000 Yuan, which increased by 18.8% over that of last year; the value added of tertiary industry was 3,664,000,000 Yuan, which increased by 18.5% over that of last year.
 
The GDP and its growth rate of Zhijin County from 2008 to 2012(According to the bureau of statistics of Zhijin County)
 
Torch Festival of Yi Nationality
Torch Festival, characterized by the richest and strongest national cultural features, is the most ceremonious, grand, magnificent festival of Yi nationality with most people joined. Torch festival, usually held in June 24th or 25th in the lunar calendar, is a traditional festival for all Yi people. It is popular in Yi residences in Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan provinces etc.
 
Chuanqing People
According to historical records, the Chuanqing people was called “Tu People”, or “Liminzi” before, and changed to “Chuanqing” later. They lived in more than 10 counties administrated by cities of Bijie, Anshun and Liupanshui in Western Guizhou Province, with the total population around 670,000. More than 50 % of them live in Zhijin County and Nayong County. Monkey is worshiped by them as totem. They still keep the faith for Wuxian God and offer sacrifices to Wuxian God nowadays.
 
Buyi Nationality
Partial Zhijin Buyi people immigrated from Qingzhen at the early beginning of Ming Dynasty, while gradually more Buyi stepped to immigrate followed the troops or for sanctuary as the warfare Wusangui conquering Shuixi at the beginning of Qing Dynasty. Now there are nearly 20,000 scattering mainly in Guangxing, Huahe in Yina, Baoying in Jinlong,Dawan in Jichang, Ertang in Qimo, Xinchang and Huachu in Babu, Hongyan, Guihua, Qunfeng, Haima in Chadian, Muga, Muli in Sanjia, and Huata in Guanzhai.
 
Miao Nationality
Miao people in Zhijin is also the descendents of Chiyou, suffered from bitter history of immigration from north to south, from east to west, experiencing multiplication in turbulence. Firstly immigrated from the boring regions between Gansu and Sichuan to the West Sichuan, then immigrated to the bordering region between Sichuan and Yunnan in Qin, Han, Sui and Tang Dynasties, while moved to South Sichuan and Northeast Yunnan in Tang and Song Dynasties, later gradually moved to Weining and Shuicheng in West Guizhou at the end of Yuan Dynasty, till in the Ming Dynasty they moved east to the present scattering regions. Now the population is about 130,000, taking 11% of the whole county. For these historical reasons, Miao people in Zhijin formed a residential pattern as mixing inhabitance in vast area and community in small scale, scattering within 32 townships in the whole county, and formed several brunches of Waishu Miao people, Wooden Horns Hair Miao People, Red Thread Miao People, White Miao People and Color Miao People.
 
Bowing by Miao Nationality
Bowing in Zhijin County is well known in China. Statistically, more than 30 Miao people has gained over 200 medals in 22 bowing matches at different levels from 1982 to 2005, because of which, Zhijin County is prized as “Bowing County” of Guizhou Plateau.
 
Waishu Miao Nationality
Waishu Miao Nationality is a branch of Miao Nationality. It was named as Waishu Miao because the women usually pull their hair into a bun on one side with a wooden comb with colored paintings inserted. They inherited the living pattern as “farming to serve daily meals, planting indigofera and cotton with spinning and weaving, dip-dying and tailor, wax painting and couching to make fabrics”. The traditional wax painting craft is kept.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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